The value iceberg: weighing the benefits of advocacy and campaigning

In value terms, advocacy and campaigning is an iceberg: most of the impact may be submerged, hard to see. And the temptation to focus only on the part that is visible risks creating a radically false picture that generates misleading information and so encourages poor decision making. How, then, can social change organisations weigh the benefits of advocacy and campaigning?

The paper looks at how concepts of ‘value’ and ‘results’ are being applied to advocacy and campaigning and presents some alternative strategies for assessing advocacy.